Introduction ::NepalBackground:In 1951, the Nepali monarch ended the century-old system of rule by hereditary premiers and instituted a cabinet system of government. Reforms in 1990 established a multiparty democracy within the framework of a constitutional monarchy. An insurgency led by Maoist extremists broke out in 1996. The ensuing 10-year civil war between insurgents and government forces witnessed the dissolution of the cabinet and parliament and assumption of absolute power by the king. Several weeks of mass protests in April 2006 were followed by several months of peace negotiations between the Maoists and government officials, and culminated in a November 2006 peace accord and the promulgation of an interim constitution. Following a nationwide election in April 2008, the newly formed Constituent Assembly (CA) declared Nepal a federal democratic republic and abolished the monarchy at its first meeting the following month. The CA elected the country's first president in July. Between 2008 and 2011 there have been four different coalition governments, led twice by the United Communist Party of Nepal-Maoist, which received a plurality of votes in the Constituent Assembly election, and twice by the Communist Party of Nepal-United Marxist-Leninist. In August 2011, Baburam BHATTARAI of the United Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) became prime minister. After the CA failed to draft a constitution by the May 2012 deadline, BHATTARAI dissolved the CA and called for new elections. Months of negotiations failed to produce a new election date. Finally, in March 2013, the chief justice of Nepal's Supreme Court, Khil Raj REGMI, was sworn in as Chairman of the Interim Council of Ministers for Elections to lead an interim government and charged with holding Constituent Assembly elections by December 2013.Geography ::NepalLocation:Southern Asia, between China and IndiaGeographic coordinates:28 00 N, 84 00 EArea:total: 147,181 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 94land: 143,351 sq kmwater: 3,830 sq kmArea - comparative:slightly larger than ArkansasLand boundaries:total: 2,926 kmborder countries: China 1,236 km, India 1,690 kmCoastline:0 km (landlocked)Maritime claims:none (landlocked)Climate:varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to subtropical summers and mild winters in southTerrain:Tarai or flat river plain of the Ganges in south, central hill region, rugged Himalayas in northElevation extremes:lowest point: Kanchan Kalan 70 mhighest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m (highest point in Asia)Natural resources:quartz, water, timber, hydropower, scenic beauty, small deposits of lignite, copper, cobalt, iron oreLand use:arable land: 16%permanent crops: 0.8%other: 83.2% (2011)Irrigated land:11,680 sq km (2003)Total renewable water resources:210.2 cu km (2011)Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 9.5 cu km/yr (2%/0%/98%)per capita: 334.7 cu m/yr (2006)Natural hazards:severe thunderstorms; flooding; landslides; drought and famine depending on the timing, intensity, and duration of the summer monsoonsEnvironment - current issues:deforestation (overuse of wood for fuel and lack of alternatives); contaminated water (with human and animal wastes, agricultural runoff, and industrial effluents); wildlife conservation; vehicular emissionsEnvironment - international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlandssigned, but not ratified: Marine Life ConservationGeography - note:landlocked; strategic location between China and India; contains eight of world's 10 highest peaks, including Mount Everest and Kanchenjunga - the world's tallest and third tallest - on the borders with China and India respectivelyPeople and Society ::NepalNationality:noun: Nepali (singular and plural)adjective: NepaliEthnic groups:Chhettri 15.5%, Brahman-Hill 12.5%, Magar 7%, Tharu 6.6%, Tamang 5.5%, Newar 5.4%, Muslim 4.2%, Kami 3.9%, Yadav 3.9%, other 32.7%, unspecified 2.8% (2001 census)Languages:Nepali (official) 47.8%, Maithali 12.1%, Bhojpuri 7.4%, Tharu (Dagaura/Rana) 5.8%, Tamang 5.1%, Newar 3.6%, Magar 3.3%, Awadhi 2.4%, other 10%, unspecified 2.5% (2001 census)note: many in government and business also speak English (2001 est.)Religions:Hindu 80.6%, Buddhist 10.7%, Muslim 4.2%, Kirant 3.6%, other 0.9% (2001 census)Population:30,430,267 (July 2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 41Age structure:0-14 years: 32.6% (male 5,045,989/female 4,859,274)15-24 years: 22.6% (male 3,444,428/female 3,431,127)25-54 years: 34.9% (male 5,015,145/female 5,593,248)55-64 years: 5.5% (male 820,014/female 860,439)65 years and over: 4.5% (male 630,853/female 729,750) (2013 est.)Dependency ratios:total dependency ratio: 66.1 %youth dependency ratio: 57.6 %elderly dependency ratio: 8.5 %potential support ratio: 11.7 (2013)Median age:total: 22.4 yearsmale: 21.7 yearsfemale: 23.2 years (2013 est.)Population growth rate:1.81% (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 66Birth rate:21.48 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 79Death rate:6.68 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 143Net migration rate:3.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 31Urbanization:urban population: 17% of total population (2011)rate of urbanization: 3.62% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)Major urban areas - population:KATHMANDU (capital) 990,000 (2009)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female25-54 years: 0.88 male(s)/female55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/femaletotal population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2013 est.)Mother's mean age at first birth:20.1note: Median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011 est.)Maternal mortality rate:170 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)country comparison to the world: 61Infant mortality rate:total: 41.76 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 53male: 41.8 deaths/1,000 live birthsfemale: 41.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)Life expectancy at birth:total population: 66.86 yearscountry comparison to the world: 165male: 65.57 yearsfemale: 68.19 years (2013 est.)Total fertility rate:2.36 children born/woman (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 93Contraceptive prevalence rate:49.7% (2011)Health expenditures:5.5% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 122Physicians density:0.21 physicians/1,000 population (2004)Hospital bed density:5 beds/1,000 population (2006)Drinking water source:improved:urban: 93% of populationrural: 88% of populationtotal: 89% of populationunimproved:urban: 7% of populationrural: 12% of populationtotal: 11% of population (2010 est.)Sanitation facility access:improved:urban: 48% of populationrural: 27% of populationtotal: 31% of populationunimproved:urban: 52% of populationrural: 73% of populationtotal: 69% of population (2010 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:0.4% (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 72HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:64,000 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 51HIV/AIDS - deaths:4,700 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 39Major infectious diseases:degree of risk: highfood or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fevervectorborne disease: Japanese encephalitis, malaria, and dengue fever (2013)Obesity - adult prevalence rate:1.4% (2008)country comparison to the world: 189Children under the age of 5 years underweight:29.1% (2011)country comparison to the world: 18Education expenditures:4.7% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 86Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and writetotal population: 57.4%male: 71.1%female: 46.7% (2011 est.)School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 9 yearsmale: 10 yearsfemale: 8 years (2002)Child labor - children ages 5-14:total number: 2,467,549percentage: 34 % (2008 est.)Government ::NepalCountry name:conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Nepalconventional short form: Nepallocal long form: Sanghiya Loktantrik Ganatantra Nepallocal short form: NepalGovernment type:federal democratic republicCapital:name: Kathmandugeographic coordinates: 27 43 N, 85 19 Etime difference: UTC+5.75 (10.75 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)Administrative divisions:14 zones (anchal, singular and plural); Bagmati, Bheri, Dhawalagiri, Gandaki, Janakpur, Karnali, Kosi, Lumbini, Mahakali, Mechi, Narayani, Rapti, Sagarmatha, SetiIndependence:1768 (unified by Prithvi Narayan SHAH)National holiday:Republic Day, 29 MayConstitution:15 January 2007 (interim Constitution); note - in April 2008, the Constituent Assembly (CA) was elected as an interim parliament to draft and promulgate a new constitution by May 2010; the deadline was extended four times, mostly recently until May 2012 when the CA was dissolved without completing a new constitutionLegal system:English common law and Hindu legal conceptsInternational law organization participation:has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCtSuffrage:18 years of age; universalExecutive branch:chief of state: President Ram Baran YADAV (since 23 July 2008); Vice President Paramananda JHA (since 23 July 2008)head of government: note: on 14 March 2013, the chief justice of Nepal's Supreme Court, Khil Raj REGMI, was sworn in as Chairman of the Interim Council of Ministers for Elections to lead an interim government and charged with holding Constituent Assembly elections by December 2013cabinet: cabinet was formed in August-September 2011 by a majority coalition made up of the United Communist Party of Nepal-Maoist, Madhesi People's Rights Forum-Democratic, Madhesi People's Rights Forum-Republic, Madhesi People's Rights Forum-Nepal, Terai-Madhes Democratic Party, and several smaller parties(For more information visit the World Leaders website )elections: president elected by Parliament; term extends until the new constitution is promulgated; president elected on 21 July 2008; date of next election NAelection results: Ram Baran YADAV elected president by the Constituent Assembly in a second round of voting on 21 July 2008; Ram Baran YADAV 308, Ram Jaja Prasad SINGH 282Legislative branch:note: in May 2012 Prime Minister Baburam BHATTARAI dissolved the previous unicameral Constituent Assemblyunicameral Constituent Assembly (601 seats; 240 members elected by direct popular vote, 335 by proportional representation, and 26 appointed by the Cabinet (Council of Ministers)elections: last held on 10 April 2008; note - the Constituent Assembly failed to draft a new constitution by the 27 May 2012 deadline; as of early 2013, the parties were in negotiations to hold elections for a new Constituent Assemblyelection results: percent of vote by party - CPN-M 38%, NC 19%, CPN-UML 18%, Madhesi People's Right Forum-Nepal 9%, other 11%; seats by party - CPN-M 229, NC 115, CPN-UML 108, Madhesi People's Rights Forum-Nepal 54, Terai Madhes Democratic Party 21, other smaller parties 74; note - 26 seats filled by the new Cabinet are included in the totals aboveJudicial branch:highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and up to 14 judgesnote - Nepal's judiciary was restructured under its 2007 Interim Constitutionjudge selection and term of office: the Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the prime minister on the recommendation of the Constitutional Council; other judges are appointed by the prime minister on the recommendation of the Judicial Council; judges serve until age 65subordinate courts: appellate and district courtsPolitical parties and leaders:Chure Bhawar Rastriya Ekata Party [Himalaya Bhakta PRADHANGA]Communist Party of Nepal-Marxist Leninist or CPN-ML [C.P. MAINALI]Communist Party of Nepal-Marxist Leninist Samaibadi [Jaqat Bahadur BOGATI]Communist Party of Nepal-Maoist or CPN-M [Mohan BAIDYA, also known as KIRAN]Communist Party of Nepal-Unified [Raj Singh SHRIS]Communist Party of Nepal-United [Chandra Dev JOSHI]Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist-Leninist or CPN-UML [Jhalanath KHANAL]Dalit Janajati Party [Vishwendraman PASHWAN]Federal Democratic National Forum [Khagendra MAKHAIM]Federal Democratic National Forum - Tharuhat [Rukmini CHAUDHARY]Federal Democratic National Party [Ravindra THING]Federal Socialist Party [Ashok RAI]Federal Sadbhayana Party [Anil JHAL]Janta Dal United [Biswonath Prasad AGRAWAL]Madhesi People's Rights Forum-Democratic [Bijay Kumar GACHHADAR]Madhesi People's Rights Forum-Nepal [Upendra YADAV]Madhesi People's Rights Forum-Republic [Raj Kishore YADAV]National Madhes Socialist Party [Sharat Singh BHANDARI]Nepal Loktantrik Samajbadi Dal [Laxmi Lal CHAUDBARY]Nepal Pariwar Dal [Eknath DHAKAL]Nepal Workers and Peasants Party [Narayan Man BIJUKCHHE]Nepali Congress or NC [Sushil KOIRALA]Nepali Janata Dal [Hari Charan SAH]Newa Rastriya Party [Keshav Man SHAKYA]Rastriya Janamorcha [Chitra Bahadur K.C.]Rastriya Janamukti Party [Malwar Singh THAPA]Rastriya Janashakti Party or RJP [Surya Bahadur THAPA]Rastriya Prajantantra Party [Pashupati Shumsher RANA]Rastriya Prajantantra Party Nepal [Kamal THAPA]Sadbhavana Party [Rajendra MAHATO]Sadbhavana Party-Anandi Devi [Sarita GIRI]Samajbadi Prajatantrik Janata Party Nepal [Prem Bahadur SINGH]Social Democratic Party [Chaitanya SUBBA]Terai Madhes Democratic Party [Mahantha THAKUR]Terai Madhes Democratic Party-Nepal [Mahendra YADAVI]Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) [Pushpa Kamal DAHAL, also known as PRACHANDA]Political pressure groups and leaders:other: small armed groups along the southern border with India; a variety of groups advocating regional autonomy for individual ethnic groupsInternational organization participation:ADB, BIMSTEC, CD, CP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNMIT, UNOCI, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTODiplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Shankar Prasad SHARMAchancery: 2131 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008telephone:  (202) 667-4550FAX:  (202) 667-5534consulate(s) general: New YorkDiplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Peter W. BODDEembassy: Maharajgunj, Kathmandumailing address: use embassy street addresstelephone:  (1) 400-7200FAX:  (1) 400-7272Flag description:red with a blue border around the unique shape of two overlapping right triangles; the smaller, upper triangle bears a white stylized moon and the larger, lower triangle displays a white 12-pointed sun; the color red represents the rhododendron (Nepal's national flower) and is a sign of victory and bravery, the blue border signifies peace and harmony; the two right triangles are a combination of two single pennons (pennants) that originally symbolized the Himalaya Mountains while their charges represented the families of the king (upper) and the prime minister, but today they are understood to denote Hinduism and Buddhism, the country's two main religions; the moon represents the serenity of the Nepalese people and the shade and cool weather in the Himalayas, while the sun depicts the heat and higher temperatures of the lower parts of Nepal; the moon and the sun are also said to express the hope that the nation will endure as long as these heavenly bodiesnote: Nepal is the only country in the world whose flag is not rectangular or squareNational symbol(s):rhododendron blossomNational anthem:name: ""Sayaun Thunga Phool Ka"" (Hundreds of Flowers)lyrics/music: Pradeep Kumar RAI/Ambar GURUNGnote: adopted 2007; after the abolition of the monarchy in 2006, a new anthem was required because of the previous anthem's praise for the kingEconomy ::NepalEconomy - overview:Nepal is among the poorest and least developed countries in the world, with about one-quarter of its population living below the poverty line. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy, providing a livelihood for three-fourths of the population and accounting for a little over one-third of GDP. Industrial activity mainly involves the processing of agricultural products, including pulses, jute, sugarcane, tobacco, and grain. Nepal has considerable scope for exploiting its potential in hydropower, with an estimated 42,000 MW of feasible capacity, but political instability hampers foreign investment. Additional challenges to Nepal's growth include its landlocked geographic location, civil strife and labor unrest, and its susceptibility to natural disaster.GDP (purchasing power parity):$41.22 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 102$39.4 billion (2011 est.)$37.93 billion (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGDP (official exchange rate):$19.42 billion (2012 est.)GDP - real growth rate:4.6% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 713.9% (2011 est.)4.8% (2010 est.)GDP - per capita (PPP):$1,300 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 207$1,300 (2011 est.)$1,300 (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGDP - composition, by end use:household consumption: 76%government consumption: 10.7%investment in fixed capital: 20%investment in inventories: 14.9%exports of goods and services: 10%imports of goods and services: -33.4%(2012 est.)GDP - composition, by sector of origin:agriculture: 38.1%industry: 15.3%services: 46.6% (2012 est.)Agriculture - products:pulses, rice, corn, wheat, sugarcane, jute, root crops; milk, water buffalo meatIndustries:tourism, carpets, textiles; small rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed mills; cigarettes, cement and brick productionIndustrial production growth rate:3% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 87Labor force:18 millioncountry comparison to the world: 35note: severe lack of skilled labor (2009 est.)Labor force - by occupation:agriculture: 75%industry: 7%services: 18% (2010 est.)Unemployment rate:46% (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 19242% (2004 est.)Population below poverty line:25.2% (2011 est.)Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 3.2%highest 10%: 29.5% (2011)Distribution of family income - Gini index:32.8 (2010)country comparison to the world: 10047.2 (2008 est.)Budget:revenues: $3.5 billionexpenditures: $4.7 billion (FY11/12)Taxes and other revenues:18% of GDP (FY11/12)country comparison to the world: 177Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):-6.2% of GDP (FY11/12)country comparison to the world: 179Fiscal year:16 July - 15 JulyInflation rate (consumer prices):9.5% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1969.5% (2011 est.)Central bank discount rate:6% (31 December 2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 516.5% (31 December 2009 est.)Commercial bank prime lending rate:8% (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1168% (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of narrow money:$3.105 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 115$2.723 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of broad money:$12.12 billion (31 December 2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 98$12.14 billion (31 December 2010 est.)Stock of domestic credit:$11.88 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 95$10.67 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Market value of publicly traded shares:$4.529 billion (31 December 2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 84$4.843 billion (31 December 2010)$5.485 billion (31 December 2009 est.)Current account balance:$93 million (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 53$49 million (2011 est.)Exports:$1.066 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 154$998.9 million (2011 est.)Exports - commodities:clothing, pulses, carpets, textiles, juice, pashima, jute goodsExports - partners:India 55.7%, US 10.1%, Germany 4.4% (2012)Imports:$5.92 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 121$5.665 billion (2011 est.)Imports - commodities:petroleum products, machinery and equipment, gold, electrical goods, medicineImports - partners:India 51%, China 34.5% (2012)Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$3.631 billion (31 December 2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 102$2.925 billion (2010 est.)Debt - external:$3.956 billion (31 December 2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 129$3.673 billion (31 December 2010 est.)Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:$NAStock of direct foreign investment - abroad:$NAExchange rates:Nepalese rupees (NPR) per US dollar -85.197 (2012 est.)74.02 (2011 est.)73.16 (2010 est.)77.44 (2009)65.21 (2008)Energy ::NepalElectricity - production:3.431 billion kWh (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 126Electricity - consumption:5.349 billion kWh (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 111Electricity - exports:0 kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 112Electricity - imports:74 million kWh (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 96Electricity - installed generating capacity:717,000 kW (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 128Electricity - from fossil fuels:7.9% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 196Electricity - from nuclear fuels:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 152Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:92.1% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 10Electricity - from other renewable sources:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 168Crude oil - production:0 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 173Crude oil - exports:0 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 161Crude oil - imports:0 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 108Crude oil - proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 172Refined petroleum products - production:0 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 120Refined petroleum products - consumption:18,430 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 132Refined petroleum products - exports:0 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 208Refined petroleum products - imports:17,250 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 109Natural gas - production:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 174Natural gas - consumption:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 180Natural gas - exports:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 154Natural gas - imports:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 108Natural gas - proved reserves:0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 177Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:3.359 million Mt (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 136Communications ::NepalTelephones - main lines in use:834,000 (2013)country comparison to the world: 85Telephones - mobile cellular:18.138 million (2013)country comparison to the world: 50Telephone system:general assessment: poor telephone and telegraph service; fair radiotelephone communication service and mobile-cellular telephone networkdomestic: mobile-cellular telephone subscribership base is increasing with roughly 90% of the population living in areas covered by mobile carriersinternational: country code - 977; radiotelephone communications; microwave and fiber landlines to India; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2011)Broadcast media:state operates 2 TV stations as well as national and regional radio stations; roughly 30 independent TV channels are registered with only about half in regular operation; nearly 400 FM radio stations are licensed with roughly 300 operational (2007)Internet country code:.npInternet hosts:41,256 (2012)country comparison to the world: 100Internet users:577,800 (2009)country comparison to the world: 116Transportation ::NepalAirports:47 (2013)country comparison to the world: 94Airports - with paved runways:total: 11over 3,047 m: 11,524 to 2,437 m: 3914 to 1,523 m: 6under 914 m: 1 (2013)Airports - with unpaved runways:total: 361,524 to 2,437 m: 1914 to 1,523 m: 6under 914 m:29 (2013)Railways:total: 59 kmcountry comparison to the world: 129narrow gauge: 59 km 0.762-m gauge (2008)Roadways:total: 17,282 kmcountry comparison to the world: 119paved: 10,142 kmunpaved: 7,140 km (2007)Military ::NepalMilitary branches:Nepal Army (2012)Military service age and obligation:18 years of age for voluntary military service; 15 years of age for military training; no conscription (2012)Manpower available for military service:males age 16-49: 6,941,152females age 16-49: 7,618,397 (2010 est.)Manpower fit for military service:males age 16-49: 5,260,878females age 16-49: 5,947,512 (2010 est.)Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:male: 380,172female: 367,103 (2010 est.)Military expenditures:1.3% of GDP (2012)country comparison to the world: 109Transnational Issues ::NepalDisputes - international:joint border commission continues to work on contested sections of boundary with India, including the 400 square kilometer dispute over the source of the Kalapani River; India has instituted a stricter border regime to restrict transit of Maoist insurgents and illegal cross-border activitiesRefugees and internally displaced persons:refugees (country of origin): 15,0000-20,000 (Tibet/China); about 43,000 (Bhutan) (2012)IDPs: 50,000 (remaining from ten-year Maoist insurgency that officially ended in 2006; figure does not include people displaced since 2007 by inter-communal violence and insecurity in the Terai region) (2012)stateless persons: 800,000 (2011); note - in 2007-2008 the government distributed 2.6 million citizenship certificates to the 3.4 million people without one; the remaining 800,000 without citizenship certificates are not necessarily stateless, and the UNHCR is working with the Nepali Government to clarify their situation; lesser numbers of Bhutanese Hindu refugees of Nepali origin (the Lhotsampa) who were stripped of Bhutanese nationality and forced to flee their country in the late 1980s and early 1990s - and undocumented Tibetan refugees who arrived in Nepal prior to the 1990s - are considered statelessIllicit drugs:illicit producer of cannabis and hashish for the domestic and international drug markets; transit point for opiates from Southeast Asia to the West"
The World Factbook. 2014.
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